118 WAYS TO PASS THE EARTH SCIENCE REGENTS
1. The same substance always has the same density, regardless of it's size or shape.
2. As pressure increases, density increases.
3. As temperature increases, air density and air pressure both decrease.
4. As moisture content increases, air pressure decreases.
5. Water expands when it freezes.
6. Highest pressure air: cold and dry.
7. Wind is caused by air pressure differences.
8. Wind blows from high pressure to low pressure.
9. Wind is named for the direction it is coming from
10. The closer the isobars, the faster the wind speed.
11.Highs are regions of divergence (clockwise) and lows are regions of convergence (counterclockwise).
12. The closer the air temperature is to the dewpoint temperature, the greater the probability of precipitation.
13. USE THE REFERENCE TABLES!
14. Air pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
15. Weather moves from west to east.
16. Low or falling barometric pressure means bad weather.
17. High or rising barometric pressure means fair weather.
18. Storms, hurricanes and tornadoes are all low pressure (counterclockwise motion).
19. Cold Front:
20. Warm Front:
21. Cold fronts move the fastest.
22. Air cools as it rises (expansion).
23. Air warms as it sinks (compression).
24. Clouds form when air rises, cools, and reaches dewpoint.
25. Planetary winds have curved paths due to the Coriolis effect, caused by the Earth's rotation.
26. Conduction: molecule to molecule through collisions.
27. Convection: through fluids (gas or liquid) due to density differences.
28. Radiation: electromagnetic waves through space (vacuum), ex: light or radio waves.
29. Energy moves from source (high temperature) to sink (low temperature).
30. Kinetic energy: energy of motion, increases with increasing velocity.
31. Potential energy: stored, increases with height.
32. Radiation from the Sun is mostly visible.
33. Infared has longer wavelength than visible, and is radiated by the Earth.
34. Carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infared radiation radiated by Earth, heating the atmosphere.
35. USE THE REFERENCE TABLES!
36. Black absorbs, white reflects.
37. Good absorbers of radiation are also good radiators.
38. Water moderates temperature, since water has a higher specific heat than land, and therefore heats up and cools down more slowly.
39. Orographic effect: